De facto states research unit

Engagement without recognition


Berg, E. and J. Ker-Lindsay (eds) 2018. The Politics of International Interaction with de facto States: Conceptualising Engagement without Recognition. Routledge.

Ker-Lindsay, J. and E. Berg 2018. Introduction: A Conceptual Framework for Engagement with de facto States, Ethnopolitics, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 335-347.

Berg, E. and S. Pegg 2018. Scrutinizing a Policy of “Engagement without Recognition”: US Requests for Diplomatic Actions with De Facto States, Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 388–407.

Pegg, S. and E. Berg 2016. Lost and Found: The WikiLeaks of De Facto State-Great Power Relations, International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 267-286.

Toomla, R. 2016. Charting Informal Engagement Between De Facto States: A Quantitative Analysis, Space and Polity, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 330-345.

Toomla, R. 2014. De Facto States in International System: Conditions for (In-)formal Engagement. Tartu University Press.

Berg, E. and R. Toomla 2009. Forms of Normalization in the Quest for De Facto Statehood. The International Spectator, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 27-45.